China's packaging waste types and resource utilization (2)

2 Main types of packaging waste and its environmental protection requirements

2.1 The main types of packaging waste: Although a wide range of packaging waste, but according to the packaging material can be divided into: paper, plastic, metal, glass, ceramics, wood and composite materials. To prevent product damage, there are a lot of cushioning materials and fillers in the packaging of many products, such as foam plastics, sponges, and shredded paper. Packaging waste can be divided into bags, boxes, bottles, cans, drums, boxes, etc. Most of the packaging waste is renewable. Research data show that 1 ton of waste paper can regenerate 0.8 tons of new paper and 0.83 tons of paperboard, which can save 4 cubic meters of wood, 0.4 tons of soda ash, 0.4 tons of standard coal, 500 degrees of electricity, and 4700 tons of water. Tons; one ton of plastic can regenerate 0.75 tons of diesel or 0.6 tons of unleaded gasoline. It can be seen that packaging waste is almost all renewable resources that can be reasonably used.

2.2 Environmental Requirements for Packaging Materials: Green packaging materials are used for packaging materials.

2.1.1 Paper: Paper packaging film, disposable paper product containers, use of natural resources to develop paper packaging materials or edible paper products.

2.2.2 Plastic packaging materials: (1) Recyclable: Waste polyester PET packaging recycling, waste plastic oil technology, waste plastics production of high-strength flame-retardant composite plastic technology, use of waste plastics to produce plastic film. (2) Degradable plastics: biodegradable plastics, biocleavable plastics, photodegradable plastics, biodegradable plastics.

2.2.3 Metal packaging materials: tinplate and aluminum (increase the material strength to reduce the thickness of the substrate, reduce tin plating amount of tinplate, use tinplate instead of aluminum products, use lead-free welding to achieve lead-free pollution, and use aluminum foil instead of plastic and paper).

2.2.4 Glass packaging materials: Lightweight and thin-walled (enhanced process and deep surface strengthening methods to increase glass strength).

3 Discussion on the utilization of packaging waste resources

With the rapid economic development, the amount of packaging waste has increased dramatically. Under such circumstances, if a resource recovery system can be established on a large scale, it will certainly reduce the waste of raw materials and reduce the amount of packaging waste discharged, transported and handled. This will not only protect the environment, but also produce significant economic and social benefits. The practice of resource recycling of packaging waste in various countries of the world shows that there is great potential for the recycling of packaging waste. To make comprehensive use of packaging waste, we must first establish a resource system. Resource-based systems refer to products made from raw materials that are processed into waste by people after they are consumed, and then introduced into the circulatory system of new production and consumption. For the whole society, it is “production-consumption-waste-reproduction”. A constantly circulating ecosystem.

For many years, the waste material recycling industry has made many contributions to the development of China's economy. Now China's recycling industry has grown from scratch, from small to large, forming a recycling processing and production management system. Packaging waste is the most urgently needed waste to protect the environment, and it is also the most valuable resource in solid waste.

3.1 Direct recycling of packaging waste

Recycling and reuse is the preferred method for the recycling of packaging waste. If it is implemented thoroughly, it will result in less waste and less cost. Some wood products, paper products, steel products, metal products and plastic packaging products can be directly recycled and reused. Direct reuse is generally used to return these wastes to the manufacturer's packaging for reuse in the original product. For example, Downy, the best-selling fabric softener in the United States, is a concentrate product that can be refillable. At present, the refill rate has reached 40%; Tide brand concentrate detergent is a refillable HDPE bottle containing 25%-50% recyclables. The re-use of such sales packaging is worthy of gradual promotion in China, such as the current domestic supermarket sales of plastic barrels of 1.6-2.5 kilograms of refined food oils, detergents, etc., can also be used in the form of refill bags.

3.2 Recycling of materials after processing by machinery, chemistry, etc.

3.2.1 Wood packaging waste: Waste wood packaging can be manufactured by mechanical or chemical treatment methods such as man-made boards, sawdust boards, wooden acoustic tiles, floors, self-lubricating materials, amino wood, and other products.
3.2.2 Paper Product Packaging Waste: Paper and paperboard fibers cannot be recycled indefinitely. In order to maintain strength, it is always necessary to add some new fibers. Corrugated cartons have lower requirements for new fibers, waste paper content up to 96%, waste paper often contains many impurities, such as adhesives, inks, polystyrene and other solid materials, in order to remove these impurities, the waste paper through the slurry The preparation apparatus processes the pulp into pulp, which can be used to make paper and cardboard in a mixture with the neat wood pulp in the necessary proportions. Such as kitchen roll paper, writing paper, envelopes, newsprint paper and so on.
(to be continued)

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